COVID-19 Articles

COVID 19 banner April 2020 min


COVID-19 Resource Centre

Starting from December 2019, a new strain of human coronavirus was detected, initially called 2019-nCoV, in few patients with viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Although a specific treatment is currently still unavailable, physicians have several options to help patients by managing symptoms with drugs and supportive systems. The EAACI community is united in disseminating new research and knowledge on COVID-19. Find some of the most useful related content here, to better serve you and your patients.
More resources on COVID-19 will be added as they are released by our community of experts.




Highlights


02 May 2020
The first, holistic immunological model of COVID‐19: implications for prevention, diagnosis, and public health measures

"Whether the virus or the adaptative immune response reach the lungs first, is a crucial factor deciding the fate of the patient. This “quantitative and time-sequence dependent” model has several implications for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID-19 at all ages."

This article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Li Wenliang, who on December 2019 first recognized a new disease and alerted the World of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic before dying of COVID-19 on 7.February.2020 at the age of 33, of Dr. Carlo Urbani, who on February 2003 first recognized a new disease and alerted the World of the SARS epidemic before succumbing to it on 29.March.2003, and of all the doctors and allied health personnel who have sacrificed their own lives to save those of their patients. We wish to honor their competence, braveness and generosity

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/pai.13271



24 April 2020
Handling of allergen immunotherapy in the COVID‐19 pandemic: An ARIA‐EAACI statement

"This manuscript outlines the EAACI recommendations regarding AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic and aims at supporting allergists and all physicians performing AIT in their current daily practice with clear recommendations how to perform treatment during the pandemic and in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14336



22 April 2020
Managing childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies during respiratory virus epidemics – the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic - A statement from the EAACI-Section on Pediatrics

"Most countries affected by COVID‐19 have opted for nationwide confinement, which means that communication with the primary clinician is often performed by telemedicine. Optimal disease control of allergic, asthmatic and immunodeficient children should be sought according to usual treatment guidelines. This statement of the EAACI Section on Pediatrics puts forward six recommendations for the management of childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies based on six underlying facts and existing evidence."

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pai.13262

 

 

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EAACI Allergy Journal 

 
all.14361
      all.14360
 

13 May 2020
Managing ocular allergy in the time of COVID‐19

"This spring, the majority of allergic patients are confined to their homes due to COVID‐19 pandemic restrictions. In the following weeks, these restrictions will be reduced andpeople will be allowed to take walks, go jogging, and return to work.Spring is the time for ocular allergy (OA) to emerge with signs and symptoms consequent to increasing pollen counts. Even when wearing a mask, the eyes may remain unprotectedleading to an increase in ocular symptoms and patients seeking treatment forOA. However, access to routine consultation may remain problematic for many patients."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14361

 

13 May 2020
SARS‐CoV‐2 immunogenicity at the crossroads

"The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) poses a global health emergency and became a worldwide pandemic. We summarize the recent findings with respect to the function, structure and immunogenicity of the spike (S) protein, arising mutations, and implications on vaccine development and therapeutics."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14360





 
all.14364
      all.14353

 

12 May 2020
Immune response to SARS‐CoV‐2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in COVID‐19

"Prevention of development to severe disease, cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome and novel approachs to prevent their development will be main routes for future research areas. As we learn to live amidst the virus, understanding the immunology of the disease can assist in containing the pandemic and in developing vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat individual patients."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14364

 

05 May 2020
COVID‐19, chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases and eosinophils – Observationsfrom reported clinical case series

"Currently, the world is facing a global pandemic with a new coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐ 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus Type 2) causing infectious disease named COVID‐19 (CoronaVirus Infectious Disease 2019). Comparing the clinical presentation and epidemiological characteristics of COVID‐19 with previous coronavirus‐associated respiratory diseases (SARS‐CoV1 and MERS) revealedsome remarkable findings and differences. Moreover, the clinical course of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection showed the complexity of COVID‐19 profile with the variable clinical presentations."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14353





  all.14348

      all.14336

 

02 May 2020
Asthma and COVID‐19: is asthma a risk factor for severe outcomes?

"My recommendations to people with asthma and those treating them are most importantly to optimize asthma control with standard therapies, but if asthma control is not optimal despite appropriate use of standard therapies, to have a low threshold for starting azithromycin prophylaxis (because of its innate antiviral (IFN-boosting) property, at this time of enormous threat from COVID-19."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14348

 

 24 April 2020
Handling of allergen immunotherapy in the COVID‐19 pandemic: An ARIA‐EAACI statement

"This manuscript outlines the EAACI recommendations regarding AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic and aims at supporting allergists and all physicians performing AIT in their current daily practice with clear recommendations how to perform treatment during the pandemic and in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14336









  all.14345

     all.14344
 

27 April 2020
Is global BCG vaccination‐induced trained immunity relevant to the progression of SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic?

"Even though we are still in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, the disproportionately smaller number of cases reported from disadvantaged/low income countries remains puzzling. We hypothesize that general BCG vaccination policies adopted by different countries might have impacted the transmission patterns and/or COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.14345

 

24 April 2020
Is BCG vaccination effecting the spread and severity of COVID‐19?

"As allergists and immunologists, we are very familiar with the T helper (Th)1 and Th2 balance in addition to orchestral roles of T regulatory and other effector cells, so we have to consider the possible roles of childhood immunizations within the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/all.14344






  Advanced forecasting of SARS CoV 2 related deaths in Italy Germany Spain and New York State     
Distinct characteristics Figure

 

18 April 2020
Advanced forecasting of SARS‐CoV‐2 related deaths in Italy, Germany, Spain, and New York State

"Appropriate forecasting model can contribute to define strategic choices both in limiting the spread of SARS-Cov-2 virus, as well as in reducing the related mortality rate. Temporal trends of SARS-CoV-2 key epidemiological indicators (e.g., mortality, incidence of infected cases, etc.) to describe the ongoing pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been estimated; their accuracy is key to plan and implement adequate health interventions (e.g., increasing ICU availability distribute personal protection gear, an eventual vaccine, etc)."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14327

 

13 April 2020
Distinct characteristics of COVID‐19 patients with initial rRT‐PCR positive and negative results for SARS‐CoV‐2

"Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the outbreak of COVID‐19 epidemic has become an increasingly serious global health concern. Currently, over 150 countries have reported COVID‐19 cases, and the situation has progressed to a pandemic associated with substantial morbidity and mortality."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/all.14316



 

  COVID 19 in a designated infectious diseases hospital outside Hubei Province China

    
Intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis in COVID 19 infected patients An ARIA EAACI statement
 

02 April 2020
COVID‐19 in a Designated Infectious Diseases Hospital Outside Hubei Province, China

"In a designated hospital outside Hubei Province, COVID‐2019 patients could be effectively managed by properly using the existing hospital system. Mortality may be lowered when cases are relatively mild and there are sufficient medical resources to care and treat the disease."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.14309

 

31 March 2020
Intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis in COVID‐19 infected patients: An ARIA‐EAACI statement

"Some sources have suggested that “corticosteroids” should be avoided during the for SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. This advice is about the use of oral corticosteroids unless there is a clear indication for their use. Patients with asthma should not stop their prescribed inhaled corticosteroid controller medication (or prescribed oral corticosteroids). Stopping inhaled corticosteroids often leads to potentially dangerous worsening of asthma, and avoiding oral corticosteroids during severe asthma attacks may have serious consequences."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.14302

 

 

  Eleven faces of COVID 19       Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS CoV 2 in Wuhan Chinajpg

 

20 March 2020
Eleven faces of coronavirus disease 2019

"All different clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 should be taken into consideration to identify patients that need to be in strict quarantine for the efficient containment of the pandemic."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.14289

   

19 February 2020
Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 in Wuhan, China

"Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID‐19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients."

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.14238





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EAACI Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Journal

Virtual issue 01 02

 

24 April 2020
SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in children – Understanding the immune responses and controlling the pandemic

"Clear understanding of the immune responses to the virus in children and the transmission potential of asymptomatic children are of paramount importance for the development of specific treatments and vaccine in order to effectively control the ongoing pandemic"

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/pai.13267


 

22 April 2020
Two X‐linked agammaglobulinemia patients develop pneumonia as COVID‐19 manifestation but recover

"Our report suggests that XLA patients might present high risk to develop pneumonia after SARS‐Cov2 infection, but can recover from infection, suggesting that B cell response might be important, but not strictly required to overcome the disease. However, there is need of larger observational studies to extend these conclusions to other patients with similar genetic immune defects."

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pai.13263

 

22 April 2020
Managing childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies during respiratory virus epidemics – the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic - A statement from the EAACI-Section on Pediatrics

"Most countries affected by COVID‐19 have opted for nationwide confinement, which means that communication with the primary clinician is often performed by telemedicine. Optimal disease control of allergic, asthmatic and immunodeficient children should be sought according to usual treatment guidelines. This statement of the EAACI Section on Pediatrics puts forward six recommendations for the management of childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies based on six underlying facts and existing evidence."

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pai.13262
 

22 April 2020
Successful containment of COVID‐19 outbreak in a large maternity and perinatal center while continuing clinical service

"Apart from massive testing of personnel in predefined phases and increased hygiene measures, including a general obligation to wear surgical face masks, we identified the need to monitor cases of illness across all groups of employees, to ensure social distancing within personnel and to evaluate contacts of clinical personnel outside of the hospital environment, in order to be able to interpret chains of infections and to disrupt them. Overall, only a bundle of measures is needed to contain such an outbreak."

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pai.13265




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EAACI Blog Posts

  Coronavirus 06.04.20 01

 

04 April 2020
Coronavirus infection and allergies: what do we know?

"Viral infections are well-known risk factors for an exacerbation of asthma. In the study by Yang et al., 40% of the COVID-19 patients with critical symptoms had an underlying long-term disease before the infection. Another study of 140 cases from Wuhan (China) did not report allergic diseases as co-morbidities among severe cases. However, more information needs to be gathered and analyzed to create reliable reports on risk factors for severe COVID-19."

https://patients.eaaci.org/coronavirus-infection-and-asthma-what-do-we-know/



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Other resources


 

24 March 2020
World Allergy Organization (WAO):
Preparing your office for the COVID-19 Pandemic

"As COVID-19 continues to spread, it is important that we are ready to continue to care for patients, and to recognize patients who may potentially have, or have been exposed to, COVID-19."

https://www.worldallergy.org/UserFiles/file/Preparing_your_office_COVID-19.pdf


 

31 March 2020
Position statement of expert panel of the Polish Allergology Society (PTA) on the management of patients with bronchial asthma and allergic diseases during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

"The dynamically changing epidemiological situation related to SARS-CoV-2 infection poses challenges also for allergists. Both allergic diseases affecting many organs, especially the respiratory system, and the procedures used by allergists give rise a number of questions about
the proper procedures during the pandemic. This position statement aims to provide allergists with recommendations on the proper management of allergic patients in the current epidemiological situation.."

Read the full article here

 

26 March 2020
COVID-19: Pandemic Contingency Planning for the Allergy and Immunology Clinic

"In the event of a global infectious pandemic, drastic measures may be needed that limit or require adjustment of ambulatory allergy services. However, no rationale for how to prioritize service shut down and patient care exists. A consensus-based ad-hoc expert panel of allergy/immunology specialists from the United States and Canada developed a service and patient prioritization schematic to temporarily triage allergy/immunology services."

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213219820302531
 

16 March 2020
DGAKI statement on asthma and COVID-19

"AIT and COVID-19
March 18, 2020
Dear colleagues,

In the past few days, we have received more and more inquiries regarding the administration of allergen immunotherapy (AIT, also hyposensitization or specific immunotherapy) in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.
If possible, AIT treatments should continue. We would like to make the following recommendations:

When carrying out AIT, the product information for the AIT products must be observed and followed.
AIT in the form of subcutaneous injections (SCIT) or in the form of (sublingual) drops or tablets (SLIT) can be continued in symptom-free and healthy patients and the therapy regimen should not be interrupted.

If signs of infection such as fever, unclear cough or reduced general condition occur, AIT should be stopped and continued at a later (symptom-free) time-point . If SCIT is interrupted, the dose has to be adjusted by the treating doctor and according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. The resumption of SLIT should be carried out under medical supervision.

Prof. Dr. med. O. Pfaar, board member of DGAKI
Prof. Dr. me. Margitta Worm, President of the DGAKI"

https://dgaki.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Statement-Asthma-und-COVID-19_F-002.pdf

 


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Do you have any questions regarding coronavirus and allergic diseases?
Contact us at science@eaaci.org

 

 

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