COVID-19 Resource Centre

COVID 19 banner April 2020 min

COVID-19 Resource Centre

Starting from December 2019, a new strain of human coronavirus was detected, initially called 2019-nCoV, in few patients with viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Although a specific treatment is currently still unavailable, physicians have several options to help patients by managing symptoms with drugs and supportive systems. The EAACI community is united in disseminating new research and knowledge on COVID-19. Find some of the most useful related content here, to better serve you and your patients.
More resources on COVID-19 will be added as they are released by our community of experts.


June 2020
ECDA statement on COVID-19, chronic diseases and EU health capacity

"This paper outlines recommendations to EU institutions, national governments and relevant groups in Europe concerning the COVID-19 response and recovery plans with regard to chronic diseases.
The lessons from this crisis must be learnt. The below proposals aim to support reflections on preparedness for potential future pandemics or other crises, which may occur as a result of factors like climate change; but also to reinforce healthcare systems’ capacity to achieve long-term public health objectives."

Access here

14 June 2020
A compendium answering 150 questions on COVID‐19 and SARS‐CoV‐2

"This paper answers pressing questions, formulated by young clinicians and scientists, on SARS‐CoV‐2, COVID‐19 and allergy, focusing on the following topics: virology, immunology, diagnosis, management of patients with allergic disease and asthma, treatment, clinical trials, drug discovery, vaccine development and epidemiology. Over 140 questions were answered by experts in the field providing a comprehensive and practical overview of COVID‐19 and allergic disease."




EAACI Allergy Journal 



14 July 2020
Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics and risk factors for severity and mortality of 289 hospitalized COVID‐19 patients

"Survived severe and non‐survived COVID‐19 patients had distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics, which were separated by principle component analysis. Elder age, increased number of affected lobes, higher levels of serum CRP, chest tightness/dyspnea, and smoking history were risk factors for mortality of severe COVID‐19 patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings may be helpful in predicting disease progression and clinical outcome of severe patients."


13 July 2020
SARS‐CoV‐2, COVID‐19, skin and immunology ‐ what do we know so far?

"In order to update information gained, we provide a systematic overview of the skin lesions described in COVID‐19 patients, discuss potential causative factors and describe differential diagnostic evaluations. Moreover, we summarize current knowledge about immunologic, clinical and histologic features of virus‐ as well as drug‐induced lesions of the skin and changes to the vascular system in order to transfer this knowledge to potential mechanisms induced by SARS‐CoV‐2."






03 July 2020
COVID‐19 and asthma, the good or the bad?

"In summary, we have seen a new zoonotic coronavirus, SARS‐CoV‐2, infection that has had a devastating effect on the host immunity via the inhibition of interferons leading to aberrant innate immune response, macrophage inflammation in releasing a cytokine storm and exhaustion of the cellular immunity of T lymphocytes.9 Fortunately, due to chronic and sustained type 2 immune inflammation in the lungs of asthmatic patients, or by the medications they use for asthma control, it seems asthma may not be a major confounding disease in COVID‐19 infection, and this unexpected phenomenon may shed a new light on finding therapies or preventative strategies for SARS‐CoV‐2."


26 June 2020
COVID‐19: A series of important recent clinical and laboratory reports in immunology and pathogenesis of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and care of allergy patients

"The “coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19)” outbreak was first reported in December 2019 (China). Since then, this disease has rapidly spread across the globe and in March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID‐19 pandemic.1 Since the outbreak was first announced, our journal has extensively focused on the clinical features, outcomes, diagnosis, immunology, and pathogenesis of COVID‐19 and its infectious agent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2).."


26 June 2020
ARIA‐EAACI statement on Asthma and COVID‐19

"An ARIA-EAACI statement has been devised to make recommendations on asthma, and not necessarily on severe asthma, based on a consensus from its members."



22 June 2020
Immunology of COVID‐19: mechanisms, clinical outcome, diagnostics and perspectives – a report of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)

"We also summarize known and potential SARS‐CoV‐2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system. Finally, we discuss the known and potential mechanisms underlying the involvement of comorbidities, gender and age in development of COVID‐19. Consequently, we highlight the knowledge gaps and urgent research requirements to provide a quick roadmap for ongoing and needed COVID‐19 studies."


22 June 2020
Telemedicine allows quantitative measuring of olfactory dysfunction in COVID‐19

"For the first time, quantitative psychophysical analyses of olfaction were performed over a full course of COVID-19 in this homogenous cohort of relatively young adults, while previous studies used self-ratings, only. It is well accepted that self-ratings largely underestimate olfactory dysfunction. Usually required face-to-face contact seems to cause this systematic error, while telemedicine consultations allows safe testing for patients and staff. The comprehensive impairment without nasal symptoms supports the suggestion of a neurotropic and neuro-invasive virus that is site-specific for the olfactory system using angiotensin-converting-enzyme-receptor-2 (ACE2) for intracellular invasion."


20 June 2020
The role of peripheral blood eosinophil counts in COVID‐19 patients

"The majority of COVID‐19 patients (71.7%) had a decrease in circulating EOS counts, which was significantly more frequent than other types of pneumonia patients. EOS counts had good value for COVID‐19 prediction, even higher when combined with NLR. Patients with low EOS counts at admission were more likely to have fever, fatigue and shortness of breath, with more lesions in chest CT and radiographic aggravation, longer length of hospital stay and course of disease than those with normal EOS counts."



16 June 2020
Eosinopenia is associated with greater severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019

"Based on accumulating data, patients with severe COVID-19 show a trend towards eosinopenia, which raises the concern whether eosinopenia is associated with the disease severity. Eosinophil, initially identified as a key effector cell of allergy, has now been demonstrated to possess antiviral capacities and serve to amply immune response and thus dampen inflammation. It is currently not known whether COVID-19 patients with eosinopenia are also more likely to develop into critically illness. This updated analysis aimed to investigate the association between eosinopenia and COVID-19 severity."


16 June 2020
COVID‐19 in a patient with severe asthma treated with Omalizumab

"ircumstantial evidence suggests that patients with allergic asthma might have a lower risk to develop severe forms of COVID‐19. In addition, the anti‐IgE antibody Omalizumab was shown to enhance anti‐viral immunity. We report a case of a 52‐year‐old man with severe allergic asthma treated with Omalizumab with no evidence of an asthma exacerbation, loss of asthma control or pneumonia during symptomatic COVID‐19 disease. We hypothesize that the underlying disease (allergic asthma) or the antibody used for treatment (Omalizumab), or both, might have exerted protective effects."


12 June 2020
COVID‐19 pandemic: Practical considerations on the organization of an allergy clinic – an EAACI/ARIA Position Paper

"This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients whilst ensuring necessary safety in the current COVID‐19 pandemic."

A compendium answering 150 questions
Clinical characteristics of 182

  Diagnosis and management of the drug hypersensitivity reactions

07 June 2020
A compendium answering 150 questions on COVID‐19 and SARS‐CoV‐2

"This paper answers pressing questions, formulated by young clinicians and scientists, on SARS‐CoV‐2, COVID‐19 and allergy, focusing on the following topics: virology, immunology, diagnosis, management of patients with allergic disease and asthma, treatment, clinical trials, drug discovery, vaccine development and epidemiology. Over 140 questions were answered by experts in the field providing a comprehensive and practical overview of COVID‐19 and allergic disease."


10 June 2020
Clinical characteristics of 182 pediatric COVID‐19 patients with different severities and allergic status

"Pediatric COVID‐19 patients tended to have a mild clinical course. Patients with pneumonia had higher proportion of fever and cough and increased inflammatory biomarkers than those without pneumonia. There was no difference between allergic and non‐allergic COVID‐19 children in disease incidence, clinical features, laboratory and immunological findings. Allergy was not a risk factor for developing and severity of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and hardly influenced the disease course of COVID‐19 in children."


08 June 2020
Diagnosis and management of the drug hypersensitivity reactions in Coronavirus disease 19

"This review brings togetherall the published information about the diagnosis and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions due to current and candidate off‐label drugs andhighlights relevant recommendations. Furthermore, it gathers all the dermatologic manifestations reported during the disease for guiding the clinicians to establish a better differential diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactionsin the course of the disease."

Clinical characteristics of COVID 19 patients combined with allergy all.14434

Considerations on biologicals all.14407
  Distribution of ACE2 all.14429

07 June 2020
Clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 patients combined with allergy

"(...) we found that combined allergies might reduce the destructive power of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 patients combined with allergy had less severe initial conditions and a lower degree of lung lesions, which might owe to the fact that T lymphocytes were less damaged by SARSCOV2. Other underlying diseases may also exist with these patients and often with the worse condition and worse prognosis."


05 June 2020
Considerations on Biologicals for Patients with allergic disease in times of the COVID‐19 pandemic: an EAACI Statement

"Currently, there is very little evidence for an enhanced risk of patients with allergic diseases to develop severe COVID‐19 with studies focusing on severe allergic phenotypes lacking. At present, non‐infected patients on biologicals for the treatment of asthma, atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps or chronic spontaneous urticaria should continue their biologicals targeting type 2 inflammation via self‐application. In case of an active SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, biological treatment needs to be stopped until clinical recovery and SARS‐CoV‐2 negativity is established and treatment with biologicals should be re‐initiated. Maintenance of add‐on therapy and a constant assessment of disease control, apart from acute management is demanded."


04 June 2020
Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26 and other SARS‐CoV‐2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID‐19 risk factors

"Our data suggest different receptor repertoire potentially involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the epithelial barriers and in the immune cells. Altered expression of these receptors related with age, gender, obesity and smoking, as well as with the disease status might contribute to COVID-19 morbidity and severity patterns."

Low prevalence of bronchial asthma 14420


01 June 2020
Is asthma protective against COVID‐19?

"(...) there are no published reports of other type 2 conditions associated with severe COVID-19. Herein, we share some clues supporting the hypothesis that type 2 conditions do not represent a risk factor, despite the most morbidity occurring due to SARS-CoV-2 induced lung damage."


26 May 2020
Low prevalence of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease among intensive care unit patients with COVID‐19

"In an uncontrolled study, we could not rule out the contribution of COPD to the more severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was shown in the previous studies. However, patients with bronchial asthma do not seem to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 induced ARDS. Our findings suggest that there is no need to change standard treatment for chronic respiratory diseases during pandemic of COVID-19. Additional studies are needed to prove this hypothesis."


20 May 2020
COVID‐19 Clinical trials: quality matters more than quantity

"Hopefully, the efforts of clinical researchers in the fight against the SARS Cov‐2 will result into the identification of effective treatments. To make this possible, clinical research should be oriented by guidelines for more harmonized high‐quality studies and by a united commitment of the scientific community to share personal knowledge and data. Allergists and clinical immunologists should have a leading role in this unprecedent challenge."




17 May 2020
Allergy and asthma in children and adolescents during the COVID outbreak: what we know and how we could prevent allergy and asthma flares?

"Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic is affecting people at any age with a more severe course in patients with chronic diseases or comorbidities, males and elderly patients. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initially proposed that patients with chronic lung diseases, including moderate‐severe asthma, and allergy may have a higher risk of developing severe COVID‐19 than otherwise healthy people"


13 May 2020
Managing ocular allergy in the time of COVID‐19

"This spring, the majority of allergic patients are confined to their homes due to COVID‐19 pandemic restrictions. In the following weeks, these restrictions will be reduced andpeople will be allowed to take walks, go jogging, and return to work.Spring is the time for ocular allergy (OA) to emerge with signs and symptoms consequent to increasing pollen counts. Even when wearing a mask, the eyes may remain unprotectedleading to an increase in ocular symptoms and patients seeking treatment forOA. However, access to routine consultation may remain problematic for many patients."


13 May 2020
SARS‐CoV‐2 immunogenicity at the crossroads

"The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) poses a global health emergency and became a worldwide pandemic. We summarize the recent findings with respect to the function, structure and immunogenicity of the spike (S) protein, arising mutations, and implications on vaccine development and therapeutics."


     all.14353   all.14348

12 May 2020
Immune response to SARS‐CoV‐2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in COVID‐19

"Prevention of development to severe disease, cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome and novel approachs to prevent their development will be main routes for future research areas. As we learn to live amidst the virus, understanding the immunology of the disease can assist in containing the pandemic and in developing vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat individual patients."


05 May 2020
COVID‐19, chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases and eosinophils – Observationsfrom reported clinical case series

"Currently, the world is facing a global pandemic with a new coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐ 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus Type 2) causing infectious disease named COVID‐19 (CoronaVirus Infectious Disease 2019). Comparing the clinical presentation and epidemiological characteristics of COVID‐19 with previous coronavirus‐associated respiratory diseases (SARS‐CoV1 and MERS) revealedsome remarkable findings and differences. Moreover, the clinical course of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection showed the complexity of COVID‐19 profile with the variable clinical presentations."


02 May 2020
Asthma and COVID‐19: is asthma a risk factor for severe outcomes?

"My recommendations to people with asthma and those treating them are most importantly to optimize asthma control with standard therapies, but if asthma control is not optimal despite appropriate use of standard therapies, to have a low threshold for starting azithromycin prophylaxis (because of its innate antiviral (IFN-boosting) property, at this time of enormous threat from COVID-19."


     all.14345   all.14344

 24 April 2020
Handling of allergen immunotherapy in the COVID‐19 pandemic: An ARIA‐EAACI statement

"This manuscript outlines the EAACI recommendations regarding AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic and aims at supporting allergists and all physicians performing AIT in their current daily practice with clear recommendations how to perform treatment during the pandemic and in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients."


27 April 2020
Is global BCG vaccination‐induced trained immunity relevant to the progression of SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic?

"Even though we are still in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, the disproportionately smaller number of cases reported from disadvantaged/low income countries remains puzzling. We hypothesize that general BCG vaccination policies adopted by different countries might have impacted the transmission patterns and/or COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality."


24 April 2020
Is BCG vaccination effecting the spread and severity of COVID‐19?

"As allergists and immunologists, we are very familiar with the T helper (Th)1 and Th2 balance in addition to orchestral roles of T regulatory and other effector cells, so we have to consider the possible roles of childhood immunizations within the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak."

  Advanced forecasting of SARS CoV 2 related deaths in Italy Germany Spain and New York State      Distinct characteristics Figure

COVID 19 in a designated infectious diseases hospital outside Hubei Province China

18 April 2020
Advanced forecasting of SARS‐CoV‐2 related deaths in Italy, Germany, Spain, and New York State

"Appropriate forecasting model can contribute to define strategic choices both in limiting the spread of SARS-Cov-2 virus, as well as in reducing the related mortality rate. Temporal trends of SARS-CoV-2 key epidemiological indicators (e.g., mortality, incidence of infected cases, etc.) to describe the ongoing pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been estimated; their accuracy is key to plan and implement adequate health interventions (e.g., increasing ICU availability distribute personal protection gear, an eventual vaccine, etc)."


13 April 2020
Distinct characteristics of COVID‐19 patients with initial rRT‐PCR positive and negative results for SARS‐CoV‐2

"Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the outbreak of COVID‐19 epidemic has become an increasingly serious global health concern. Currently, over 150 countries have reported COVID‐19 cases, and the situation has progressed to a pandemic associated with substantial morbidity and mortality."


02 April 2020
COVID‐19 in a Designated Infectious Diseases Hospital Outside Hubei Province, China

"In a designated hospital outside Hubei Province, COVID‐2019 patients could be effectively managed by properly using the existing hospital system. Mortality may be lowered when cases are relatively mild and there are sufficient medical resources to care and treat the disease."

  Intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis in COVID 19 infected patients An ARIA EAACI statement      Eleven faces of COVID 19

  Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS CoV 2 in Wuhan Chinajpg

31 March 2020
Intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis in COVID‐19 infected patients: An ARIA‐EAACI statement

"Some sources have suggested that “corticosteroids” should be avoided during the for SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. This advice is about the use of oral corticosteroids unless there is a clear indication for their use. Patients with asthma should not stop their prescribed inhaled corticosteroid controller medication (or prescribed oral corticosteroids). Stopping inhaled corticosteroids often leads to potentially dangerous worsening of asthma, and avoiding oral corticosteroids during severe asthma attacks may have serious consequences."


20 March 2020
Eleven faces of coronavirus disease 2019

"All different clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 should be taken into consideration to identify patients that need to be in strict quarantine for the efficient containment of the pandemic."


19 February 2020
Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 in Wuhan, China

"Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID‐19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients."





EAACI Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Journal

Virtual issue 01 02


09 June 2020
Postnatal SARS‐CoV‐2 Infection and Immunological Reaction: A Prospective Family Cohort Study

"The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) appears milder in children but little is known about neonates and about the chains of infections after delivery.  When in early March 2020 a midwife in our large maternity and perinatal center returned from vacation in Ischgl, Austria, she triggered a COVID‐19 outbreak affecting 36 midwives, nurses and doctors. We reported previously on the successful containment of this outbreak and characterized the clinical symptoms and immunoglobulin development in staff members exposed to SARS‐CoV‐2."


29 May 2020
African American children are at higher risk for COVID‐19 infection

"Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), the viral etiology of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), was first reported in Wuhan, China in late 2019. Peculiarly, the virus has not caused significant impact on pediatric populations, unlike other coronaviruses (1). Children comprise only 1.7% of COVID‐19 positive cases in the United States (2). Furthermore, children are noted to have a milder disease course (3, 4). However, much is unknown about the age, gender and race risk factors of COVID‐19 among children. There has been recent evidence suggestive of higher rates of COVID‐19 and related fatality rates in African American adult communities around the United States(5). However, there is limited data, to our knowledge, whether any race or ethnicity group is at higher risk for COVID‐19 infection in children."


15 May 2020
Symptoms and immunoglobulin development in hospital staff exposed to a SARS‐CoV‐2 outbreak

"We found that a significant number of diseased did not develop relevant antibody responses three weeks after symptom onset. Our data also suggest that exposure to COVID‐19 positive co‐workers in a hospital setting is not leading to the development of measurable immune responses in a significant proportion of asymptomatic contact persons."


02 May 2020
The first, holistic immunological model of COVID‐19: Implications for prevention, diagnosis, and public health measures

"This allows the virus to bypass the efficient immune barrier of the upper airway mucosa in already infected, young, and otherwise healthy athletes. In conclusion, whether the virus or the adaptive immune response reaches the lungs first is a crucial factor deciding the fate of the patient. This “quantitative and time‐/sequence‐dependent” model has several implications for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID‐19 at all ages."

Comment on article:


24 April 2020
SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in children – Understanding the immune responses and controlling the pandemic

"Clear understanding of the immune responses to the virus in children and the transmission potential of asymptomatic children are of paramount importance for the development of specific treatments and vaccine in order to effectively control the ongoing pandemic"

22 April 2020
Two X‐linked agammaglobulinemia patients develop pneumonia as COVID‐19 manifestation but recover

"Our report suggests that XLA patients might present high risk to develop pneumonia after SARS‐Cov2 infection, but can recover from infection, suggesting that B cell response might be important, but not strictly required to overcome the disease. However, there is need of larger observational studies to extend these conclusions to other patients with similar genetic immune defects."


22 April 2020
Managing childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies during respiratory virus epidemics – the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic - A statement from the EAACI-Section on Pediatrics

"Most countries affected by COVID‐19 have opted for nationwide confinement, which means that communication with the primary clinician is often performed by telemedicine. Optimal disease control of allergic, asthmatic and immunodeficient children should be sought according to usual treatment guidelines. This statement of the EAACI Section on Pediatrics puts forward six recommendations for the management of childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies based on six underlying facts and existing evidence."

22 April 2020
Successful containment of COVID‐19 outbreak in a large maternity and perinatal center while continuing clinical service

"Apart from massive testing of personnel in predefined phases and increased hygiene measures, including a general obligation to wear surgical face masks, we identified the need to monitor cases of illness across all groups of employees, to ensure social distancing within personnel and to evaluate contacts of clinical personnel outside of the hospital environment, in order to be able to interpret chains of infections and to disrupt them. Overall, only a bundle of measures is needed to contain such an outbreak."


EAACI Blog Posts

  Coronavirus 06.04.20 01


04 April 2020
Coronavirus infection and allergies: what do we know?

"Viral infections are well-known risk factors for an exacerbation of asthma. In the study by Yang et al., 40% of the COVID-19 patients with critical symptoms had an underlying long-term disease before the infection. Another study of 140 cases from Wuhan (China) did not report allergic diseases as co-morbidities among severe cases. However, more information needs to be gathered and analyzed to create reliable reports on risk factors for severe COVID-19."


Other resources


17 June  2020
Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals host genes that regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection

"We also revealed that the alarmin HMGB1 is critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, loss of the histone H3.3 chaperone complex sensitized cells to virus-induced death. Together this study reveals potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and highlights host genes that may regulate COVID-19 pathogenesis."

This article was selected by Adam Klocperk, Marketa Bloomfield, Tomáš Milota, and Anna Sediva




11 June  2020
A Global Effort to Define the Human Genetics of Protective Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

"SARS-CoV-2 infection displays immense inter-individual clinical variability, ranging from silent infection to lethal disease. The role of human genetics in determining clinical response to the virus remains unclear. Studies of outliers—individuals remaining uninfected despite viral exposure and healthy young patients with life-threatening disease—present a unique opportunity to reveal human genetic determinants of infection and disease."

This article was selected by Adam Klocperk, Marketa Bloomfield, Tomáš Milota, and Anna Sediva


02 June  2020
First antibody trial launched in COVID-19 patients

"The article describes the initiation of the first clinical trial ( LY-CoV555) that uses monoclonal antibody binding S-protein of SARS-Cov-2 virus. The antibody was designed using the most potent clones of B cells from COVID-19 patients. Before vaccine available the access to the highly specific monoclonal antibody would be very useful and might enrich treatment strategies in COVID-19."

This article was selected by Adam Klocperk, Marketa Bloomfield, Tomáš Milota, and Anna

Access here



01June 2020
Position statement of expert panel of the Polish Allergology Society (PTA) on the management of patients with bronchial asthma and allergic diseases during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

"The dynamically changing epidemiological situation related to SARS-CoV-2 infection poses challenges also for allergists. Both allergic diseases affecting many organs, especially the respiratory system, and the procedures used by allergists give rise a number of questions about
the proper procedures during the pandemic. This position statement aims to provide allergists with recommendations on the proper management of allergic patients in the current epidemiological situation.."

Read the full article here



28 May  2020
SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is an interferon-stimulated gene in human airway epithelial cells and is detected in specific cell subsets across tissues

"Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 receptor, an entry receptor for SARS-CoV and present on type 2 pneumocytes in the lung, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells in nasal mucosa.
This paper shows, that ACE2 expression is upregulated by Type 1 IFNs. Furthermore it suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may use species-specific interferon up-regulation of ACE2, a mediator that protects tissues during lung damage, to increase infection. Hence type 1 IFNs, that drive anti-viral immunity on one hand, may paradoxically promote SARS-CoV-2 expansion by upregulating ACE2 expression on the other. As the type 1 IFN regulation in asthma might be impaired, these observations also might be related to the observed underrepresentation of severe Covid-19 among patients with asthma."

This article was selected by FJS van der Velden, MD (resident paeds) & G. Tramper, PhD, MD (paediatrician, paediatric infectiologist)

Access here


26 May 2020
APOE e4 Genotype Predicts Severe COVID-19 in the UK Biobank Community Cohort

"This interesting article shows that the ApoE e4e4 allele increases risks of severe COVID-19 infection, independent of pre-existing dementia, cardiovascular disease, and type-2 diabetes.
Furthermore, as the novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2 causing COVID-19 uses the ACE2 receptor for cell entry. it is notable that ACE2 is highly expressed in type II alveolar cells in the lungs, where ApoE is one of the highly co-expressed genes."

This article was selected by Adam Klocperk, Marketa Bloomfield, Tomáš Milota, and Anna Sediva

Access here


07 May 2020
Cutaneous manifestations related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A prospective study from China and Italy

"This is a binational (Italian – Chinese) multicenter prospective study to assess cutaneous involvement in COVID-19, performed between 1.01-15.03.2020. The authors state that the dermatological manifestations could not be correlated to COVID-19 severity. Diffuse petechiae, gravity-dependent and multiple, generalized palpable purpura, and acroischemia (primarily finger/toe cyanosis, but no skin bulla nor dry gangrene) were seen in severe cases. Skin manifestations were observed in only 7.8% of the cohort, and these skin findings are generally mild and self-limiting and do not correlate with overall prognosis.”

This article was selected and commented by Dominika Ambrożej and Wojciech Feleszko

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01 May 2020
Biologics increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization, but not ICU admission and death: real-life data from a large cohort during RED-ZONE declaration

"Single center case-control study in Lombardia, Italy, of 1193 psoriasis patients treated with biologics compared to the Lombardia population as controls, assessing the risk of contracting COVID-19, and analysing mortality, and ICU admission rates. Furthermore severity of COVID-19 disease was reviewed.
Included psoriasis patients were adults, had moderate to severe disease and used approved anti-psoriatic monotherapy in the maintaining phase. Used medications include: TNFalpha inhibitors, IL 12/23 inhibitors, IL 17, IL 23 inhibitors and small molecules. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and controls were similar.
Patients under biologicals were at higher risk of testing positive for COVID 19 (OR 3.43(95% CI 2.25-5.75), more at risk of being self quarantained at home (OR 9.05) and more at risk of being hospitalized (OR 3.49) compared to controls. There was no statistical higher risk of ICU admission or death.
Authors discuss the fact that patients on biologicals might be at risk for respiratory infections, but the detrimental hyperinflammatory phase of COVID-19 as seen in the regular population occurred not in this study group and therefore might have protecte dpatients on biologicals from progression to extrapulmonary manifestations and death.
Limitations: there has not been and adjustment for, i.e. COPD patients or other patients with a known increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, there hasn’t been a detailed sub analysis of which inhibitors are more or less effective at potentially preventing severe COVID-19. It is important to acknowledge that psoriatic patients on biologicals do show an increased risk of contracting mild-to-moderate COVID-19
Questions for further research include the role of the blocked interleukins in COVID-19. Does a similar pattern occur in i.e. asthma patients on asthma biologicals?"

This article was selected by FJS van der Velden, MD (resident paeds) & G. Tramper, PhD, MD (paediatrician, paediatric infectiologist)

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22 April 2020
Association of Respiratory Allergy, Asthma and Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor, ACE2

"Asthma and respiratory allergies have not been identified as risk factor for severe Covid-19 disease in case series till now. This paper describes features that could be associated with this diminished risk. In 3 different asthma/allergy cohorts, it was examined whether ACE2 (the receptor for SARS-Cov-2 entry) expression on airway cells was reduced. Allergen sensitisation and allergen exposure was strongly associated with reduced ACE2 expression in all cohorts. This might be mediated by type 2 inflammation, as IL-13 reduced ACE2 in bronchial and nasal epithelium; non-atopic asthma was not associated with this reduction. The role of biological treatment for allergic or type 2 high asthma and SARS-Cov-2 susceptibility is yet unknown. The relation between type 2 inflammatory processes and SARS-Cov-2 disease severity could identify novel therapeutic strategies.

This article was selected by FJS van der Velden, MD (resident paeds) & G. Tramper, PhD, MD (paediatrician, paediatric infectiologist)

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26 March 2020
COVID-19: Pandemic Contingency Planning for the Allergy and Immunology Clinic

"In the event of a global infectious pandemic, drastic measures may be needed that limit or require adjustment of ambulatory allergy services. However, no rationale for how to prioritize service shut down and patient care exists. A consensus-based ad-hoc expert panel of allergy/immunology specialists from the United States and Canada developed a service and patient prioritization schematic to temporarily triage allergy/immunology services."


24 March 2020
World Allergy Organization (WAO): Preparing your office for the COVID-19 Pandemic

"As COVID-19 continues to spread, it is important that we are ready to continue to care for patients, and to recognize patients who may potentially have, or have been exposed to, COVID-19."


16 March 2020
DGAKI statement on asthma and COVID-19

"AIT and COVID-19
March 18, 2020
Dear colleagues,

In the past few days, we have received more and more inquiries regarding the administration of allergen immunotherapy (AIT, also hyposensitization or specific immunotherapy) in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.
If possible, AIT treatments should continue. We would like to make the following recommendations:

When carrying out AIT, the product information for the AIT products must be observed and followed.
AIT in the form of subcutaneous injections (SCIT) or in the form of (sublingual) drops or tablets (SLIT) can be continued in symptom-free and healthy patients and the therapy regimen should not be interrupted.

If signs of infection such as fever, unclear cough or reduced general condition occur, AIT should be stopped and continued at a later (symptom-free) time-point . If SCIT is interrupted, the dose has to be adjusted by the treating doctor and according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. The resumption of SLIT should be carried out under medical supervision.

Prof. Dr. med. O. Pfaar, board member of DGAKI
Prof. Dr. me. Margitta Worm, President of the DGAKI"


Do you have any questions regarding coronavirus and allergic diseases?
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